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The working principle of Excavator Hydraulic Pumps


What is the plunger pump, what is the gear pump?Hydraulic pump is the conversion of mechanical energy into liquid pressure energy, we generally see (excavator, loader) gear pump and plunger pump.What they have in common: they both exert pressure on the liquid through volume changes.Difference: different mechanism, different volume position.Gear pump liquid volume between the two gears, through gear rotation to change the liquid volume.And the volume of the plunger pump in each plunger cylinder.The common large and medium-sized excavator generally plunger pump and gear pump together to form the hydraulic pump assembly, generally the main pump for the plunger pump (output hydraulic oil pressure is large) to the hydraulic walking motor, hydraulic rotary motor, hydraulic cylinder oil supply;Pilot pump for gear pump (output hydraulic oil pressure is small) to the distribution valve oil supply.

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Main pump assembly gear pump: gear pump is based on two meshing gear rotation form of closed movement to work.Gear pump is the gear shaft to provide power, gear pump is quantitative pump, mostly used for low precision in low pressure control.Its main characteristics are: simple structure, convenient manufacturing, low cost, low price, small size, light weight, good self-absorption performance, not sensitive to oil pollution and reliable work.Its main disadvantages are: flow and pressure pulsation, noise, displacement can not be adjusted.It is widely used in various low-voltage systems.Gear pump on the oil requirements of the lowest, the earliest time because of low pressure, so generally used in the low-pressure system (pilot pump), now gear pump pressure can do about 25MPA, commonly used in the pressure requirements of the mechanical, but his oil pulsation is large, cannot be variable, the advantage is good self-absorption performance.Gear pump schematic diagram working principle external gear pump is a loader and some small excavator hydraulic system commonly used hydraulic pump.Pump body has a same modulus, the same number of teeth of the gear, gear two end face by the pump cover seal.Pump body, end cover and gear gear groove formed a sealed volume, two gear meshing along the closed volume space is divided into oil suction cavity and oil pressure cavity two parts, and in the work of each other is not connected.As a result of gear meshing, so that the volume of the seal gradually reduced, the oil in the groove is extruded, from the oil outlet.Gear rotation, gear meshing caused by oil absorption and oil displacement chamber volume changes, to achieve oil absorption chamber oil absorption, oil pressure chamber oil pressure.Loader gear pump (double pump: a drive shaft to drive two driven gear work, there are two oil absorption cavity and two oil drainage cavity.)At present, the domestic loader hydraulic system is basically a quantitative hydraulic system, the so-called quantitative hydraulic system that is to say, the displacement of hydraulic pump is unchanged, basically based on gear pump;There is a part of the export model, due to the foreign noise requirements of the complete machine is higher, the use of vane pump;The remaining very small part of the model configuration of the variable hydraulic system, the basic configuration of the variable plunger pump.

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Plunger pump: plunger pump is the reciprocating movement of the piston to provide power, plunger pump is a variable pump, mostly used for high-precision high-pressure control, plunger pump, high working pressure, its working pressure is generally 20 ~ 40MPa, up to 1000MPa;Compact structure;High efficiency and convenient flow regulation.Plunger pump high pressure, stable performance, high cost, minimum pulsation, variable, commonly used in high-pressure systems and engineering machinery.But he has the worst self-absorption.

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Axial plunger pump is a piston or plunger reciprocating movement direction and cylinder center shaft parallel to the plunger pump.Axial piston pump USES parallel to the transmission shaft of the plunger in the plunger hole reciprocating movement produced by the volume change to work.Because the plunger and plunger hole are circular parts, the machining can achieve a high precision fit, so the volume efficiency is high.

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